Biogas belongs to the category of biofuels and is a renewable source of energy. Biogas is produced from the breakdown of biological material in the absence of oxygen (the lack of oxygen is called anaerobic condition).
The main materials used for its production are biomass waste such as animal waste, dead plants, and organic municipal solid waste. Biogas is made up from mainly methane (around 60%) and carbon dioxide (around 40%) with some other gases in small concentrations.
Organic (biomass) wastes can be used to produce biogas (mainly methane) that:
- Can be added to the national grid.
- To generate electricity
- In Combined Power and Heat (CPH) plants, to power district heating systems as well as generating electricity
- Animal waste is collected in a large tank or pond with bacteria
- As bacteria decomposes the waste, biogas (i.e. methane) is released
- Methane is then burned to heat water and generate steam
- Steam power a generator/turbine to create electricity, which is sent to transmission lines